What is a camshaft?

 Camshaft: definition, working, parts, problems, making - studentlesson


The camshaft is located at the "top" of the engine and is an integral part of the valve mechanism. This allows air and fuel to enter the combustion chamber (space above the piston) and extract the exhaust gases after combustion. Modern internal combustion (IC) engines and four-stroke engines can have up to four cams or two cams, each cylinder has four valves (two inlets and two outlets), while the single-cam configuration has only one valve per valve.

How does a camshaft work?

The crankshaft, driven by the crankshaft, transmits the movement of the camshaft to various parts of the valve mechanism (valve lift, pressure rod, valve spring, valves, and rotary valve or arms) to open and close the valve stem valves. Cam lobes come in a variety of shapes and sizes to control valve opening levels and timing. Adjusting four camshafts increases power. With more valves, more inlets and outlets can be moved more easily because they have more room for flow.


Flat tap vs roller camshaft

The main difference between flat cam and roller camshaft is how they interact with lifter. It is called because the surface of the lifter looks like a smooth surface. This is actually a very small convex surface (and the cam lobe is milled and has a matching cone), which helps it rotate as the cam lobe slides over it. Failure to rotate the elevator actually causes rapid damage to the cams and risers and leads to failure. The roller camshaft in the hand is like a small wheel. The wheels rotate on the cam lobe, so there is no need to rotate to reduce damage. In addition, roller lifters are always fixed in place by elevator holes or connecting rods.

While rollers have obvious wear advantages over flat valves, they also improve performance. From a practical point of view, flat presses are mainly limited by the load and speed of the spring. Many successful brokers still use them, but you need to measure the life of the components. With conservative valve springs, flat valves can last for miles, but aggressive shapes and high speeds require heavier springs and pressure significantly increases wear. Something really cools for real-world hot rod apps. On the other hand, due to the different geometric shapes of the wheels and camshafts, the rollers can withstand higher spring loads and speeds.

Hydraulic vs Solid Camshaft

The main difference between these two types of cams lies in the design of the lift. Hydraulic cams, flat or roller, use ingots with an internal mechanism that is continuously adjusted to keep the valve lashes zero. They are ideal for making very quiet valve trains without the need for repairs, which is why they are the most common lifting style on any road car, from old muscle cars to new cars. 

When the number of revolutions starts to exceed 6500 rpm (or the view of the cam becomes very aggressive at high altitude or speed), the same mechanism is a limiting factor. Solid cams use taps without this internal adjustment, which allows them to supply cam specifications to the valve train very accurately. Their tolerance for high revs and offensive twists means you'll find them almost exclusively in racing circles and schedules whose main focus is high power and performance. Like hydraulic flat compressors, solid flat compressors can withstand limited spring pressures without excessive wear, but at higher potential speeds. Solid rollers have a higher spring load capacity than hydraulic rollers and at the same time provide stability of over 7000 rpm. The biggest trade-off between the two types of solid camshafts is that valve spacing must be maintained regularly to meet specifications.


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